Demonstration On Obtaining The Optimum Plant Population In Maize Production

Maize demonstration in obtaining optimum plant population in maize production.

Demonstration is an extension method used to train farmers to learn an improved technology or acquire a skill. It also helps the farmer to learn by doing. During demonstration farmers are taken through the technology or the skill step by step taking into much consideration the farmers pace.

At the end farmers learn new ways of doing things volunteering and put them into practice on their farms to increase productivity.



Production and Productivity Improvement

Activity To set up 2 demonstrations fields using good agronomic practices in obtaining optimum population in maize production.

Output: 2 demonstrations on maize set up to ensure optimum population in maize production.

Communities: Ankamu, Mprumem,, Mumford, Obokrom

Male: 20

Female: 4

Total: 24

Training objectives

At the end of the demonstration participants will

  • understand the need of adopting improved technologies in maize production
  • Be able to know the optimum population in maize production
  • be able to go through the other cultural practices in maize production
  • adopt technologies administered
  • Learn voluntary.
  1. The need of adopting improved technologies
  • increase yield per unit area assured
  • Labour cost is minimized
  • Less time is used to performed a task than the traditional way of cultivating maize
  • Early maturing of the crop
  • pests and diseases are prevented and controlled
  1. Best cultural practices, improved technologies or Parameters
  2. adoption of improved seed maize to ensure high germination rate and healthy plants
  • Abontem Improved seed maize variety used for the demonstration

Planting date 06/06/21

  • Seed germination rate was 99%
  1. Correct spacing in maize in maize for optimum land use
  • Spacing was 75cm between rows and 35cm between plants
  • Two seed per hill to provide the optimum plant population of a an average of 25,000 for the maximum yield

  28th June 2021

Experimental Plot  (1 acre)

Rows = 101

No. of plants = 153plts x 2per hill = 306

Plant population= 30, 906

Farmers field (1.5 acres)

No of rows = 136

Plant population = (58x 2) = 116

116 x 136 = 15, 776

Adopted field (farmer’s field after training) .75 acre

No. of rows = 71 = 142 = 71 x 2 = 142

No. of plts per hill= 272 x 71 =

Plant population = 19, 584


-bypel chemical was used to prevent and control FAW

– Dosage: bypel 20ml/15litres of water

  1. 4.2.1 fertilizer application for soil fertility management
  • NPK15:15: and urea was used to improve the soil fertility to ensure good yield
  • NPK applied after 4 weeks of planting and urea 6 weeks after planting
  • Method of application: NPK side dressing, Urea band placement
  • Rate of application: 25gm/plant
  1. 4.2.1 weed control for the prevention of weeds competing with plants for soil nutrients and prevention of pest and diseases build up
  • 1st weed control 4 weeks after planting and 2nd 6 weeks
  1. 1.1.6 correct and safe use  and handling of agro chemicals

-use the right chemical for the right purpose

– ask the attendant or Agricultural Extension Agent to explain to you carefully the dosage, volume of water to use and time of spraying

– read label carefully including expiring dates

– put on a complete protective clothing which includes, overall, gloves, goggles, boots, and mask

– do not eat when spraying

– do not smoke when spraying

– do not sing or talk when spraying

– keep children away from the spraying zone

– do not spray at the direction of the wind

– wash and destroy empty pesticides containers

– leave the farm immediately after spraying


Farmers and agric officers cutting pegs for row planting

Lining and Pegging

Planting of Maize two seeds per hole

Some Farmers present

Maize plants on the demonstration field with spacing 75cm by 35cm



Field day is another extension method used in training farmers to adopt new technologies by having first hands information on the result of the technologies used and most importantly learning from a colleague farmer how it was done in a step by step.

It is assumed that farmers learn best from their friends who have tried and tested improved technologies. As such field days are one of the best methods which increases adoption rate of improved technologies 



Production and productivity improvement

Activity Conduct field days to show case the effectiveness of improved Technologies

Output: field days conducted to show case the effectiveness of improved technologies


Male: 18

Female: 8

Total: 26

 Field days were conducted with farmers to learn how best the improved technologies affect maize production

These are during

  1. Planting
  2. Fall Army Worm (FAW) prevention and control
  • NPK fertilizer application
  1. Urea fertilizer application

During these activities farmers and facilitators had good interaction as participants also tried their hands on the task. Farmers took the opportunity to learn from one another and also shared success stories in their farming activities. Below are some pictures taken during field days


Farmer taken through safe handling of agro chemicals

Spraying to control Fall Army Worm

Group picture of farmers and field officers present



Maize production yield had reduced for the past years. This could be attributed to factors which include poor quality of seed maize, reoccurrence of Fall Army Worm, inadequate adoption of Good Agricultural Practices in maize production. To increase production in maize production in the district farmers where taken through Good Agricultural Practices in Maize.

OBJECTIVE: Improve production efficiency and Yield

ISSUE: Low application of technology, 

ACTIVITY:  Train farmers on Good Agricultural Practices in Maize Production

OUTPUT: Farmers trained in Good Agricultural Practices in maize production

Communities: Obokrom and Kumase

Training objectives

At the end of the training participants will understand;

  • The important of cultivating improved seed maize
  • The important of adopting correct spacing
  • The essence of using correct seed per hill
  • How to prevent and control Fall Army Worm
  • The essence of timely control of Fall Army Worm
  • The benefits of fertilizer application in maize production
  • The hazards of misusing and handling of agro chemicals
  • The importance of good post- harvest management


Extension methods used: discussions, group meetings, farm visits and community information centers

Key points during the training

  1. The importance of cultivating improved seed maize
  • Improved seed maize has high germination percentage
  • Improve seed maize is high yielding
  • Improved seed maize are early maturing varieties
  • Improved seed maize are disease and drought resistance
  • Improved seed maize are very nutritious
  1. The importance of adopting correct spacing
  • Adopting correct spacing enhances efficient use of land
  • Correct spacing yields the right plant population an acre of plot should not have less than 25,000 hills
  • Correct spacing makes other cultural practices such as weeding, fertilizer application, harvesting, spraying very simple
  1. Prevention and control of Fall Army Worm
  • Regular scouting of the worm
  • Report to the any agric office when farm is infested
  • Timely spraying with the recommended chemical
  • Repeat spraying of recommended chemicals when the worm appears again
  1. The essence of timely weed control
  • Weeds compete with crops for nutrients
  • Weeds harbors pests and attack the crops
  • Timely weeding control promote good plant growth and development


  1. The benefit of fertilizer in maize production
  • Continues cropping on the same land result to nutrients loss in the soil
  • Application of fertilizers such as NPK and Urea replenishes the soil to increase yield


  1. Safe and correct use of agro chemical is important in maize production
  • Use the right chemical for the right crop
  • Consult the chemical shop attendant or the Agric Extension Agent to carefully explain the dosage, volumes of water to use, time of spraying
  • Read the label well especially expiring date
  • Spray when weeds are young and succulent
  • Put on a complete protective clothing
  • Do not smoke, eat, sing when spraying
  • Keep children away from spraying zones
  • Leave farm after spraying
  • Take a shower immediately after spraying
  1. The importance of timely harvesting
  • Know the variety of the seed maize variety you are planting eg. Obaatanpa 110 days, Abontem 90
  • Harvest immediately when crop reaches maturity
  • Sign of maturity is detected by a black tip on the seed
  • De-husk cobs on the field if possible
  • Sort harvested cobs and put de-husk cobs in a narrow crib for further drying
  • Put shelled and dried grains in a super grain bags and store in a cool and dry place


  • Participants purchased improved seed maize and fertilizer from PFJ program
  • Farmers agreed to adopt the GAPs to increase yield
  • A farmer shared his experience with other on how his brother adopted GAPs in maize production. According to him he cultivated 3 acres using the traditional method whiles his brother cultivated one with GAPs. His brother had more maize from the one acre than the three acres


Male – 42

Female – 55

Total: 97

Farmers taken through GAPs in Maize Production

Demonstration on lining and pegging

Questions Time



 One of the major problems in maize production is post – harvest management. Post- harvest losses account for about 30% and that affects food security and income of farmers.  A Good post- harvest management practices is the key to ensure optimum yield.


Post – harvest Management

ISSUES: Low knowledge in post – harvest management, poor storage systems

Activity: 4.4.1. Train farmers on post- harvest management in maize production

Output : Farmers  trained in Post –harvest management using super grain bags

Communities: Obokrom , Kumasi, Hweda

Training objectives

  • At the end of the training participants will understand;
  • The important of adopting good post -harvest management practices
  • The steps to follow in post -harvest management
  • The use of super grain bag to preserve maize

Extension method employed: talk, discussion, demonstration,

Key points during the training

  1. The important of adopting good post- harvest management practices
  • Good post management practices ensures optimum yield
  • Prevent spoilage or losses of 20-25%
  • Enhances food security
  • Reduces the incidence of diseases and pest build up on the field
  • Ensures grains quality
  • Increases farmers income
  • Enhances the shelf life of produce
  • Improves the nutritional value of the grains- protein, vitamins and minerals


  1. The steps to follow in post- harvest management
  • Post- harvest management starts from the field
  • Know the maturity dates of varieties to cultivate
  • Adopt a timely harvesting practice
  • Harvest immediately after maturity date
  • Know the signs of maturity- the tip of the grain become black or wilt of silk then maize ready for harvest
  • Prevent harvesting in rainy days
  • Harvesting should not last more three days if possible
  • De-husk cobs on the farm if possible to prevent insect infestation on the cobs during storage
  • Put harvested maize on a narrow crib don’t pack cobs to enhance good ventilation
  • Begin to shell cobs after three months


  1. The use of Super Grain Bags to store maize
  • Use super grain polythene bags to store the grains after it has attained the right moisture content
  • The right moisture content could be determined when one hand can easily pushed through in the bag filled grains
  • Make sure the super grain bags to be used are not punched
  • Put the super grain bag into a sack before filling it with the dried maize
  • Fastened it tightly to prevent the accumulation of air in the sack as the absence of oxygen prevents the survival of insects.
  • Store the bags of maize in a clean and good ventilated area
  • Make sure the storage area is free of rodent such as mice and rats
  • Do regular inspection of the stored maize


How to use the super grain bags was demonstrated to the farmers

Most farmers confess that of their first time of hearing and seeing the super grain bags

Farmers showed their appreciation to the department of agriculture for the introduction of the storage bags

Farmers were supplied with 10 bags each


Male: 32

Female: 50

Total: 82

Demonstration on the use of Super Grain Bag

Supply of super Grains to farmers





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